# Problem Solving Ability

Of the questions posed in the problem solving and logical thinking portion of the pre-study instrument, questions 11 and 9 (p≤0.01), as well as questions 7, 12 and 4 (p≤0.05) showed the strongest correlations with academic performance (Table 7). Conversely, problems 1 and 8, 2, 3, 5 and 10 showed almost no correlation at all.

Table 7: Spearman Rho Correlation Matrix between Problem Solving Questions and Academic Performance

 Problem 2 Problem 3 Problem 4 Problem 5 Problem 6 Problem 7 Problem 9 Problem 10 Problem 11 Problem 12 Academic Performance Problems 1 & 8 Correlation Coefficient .180 .240 .377(*) .049 .147 .103 .165 -.196 .053 -.094 -.097 Sig. (1-tailed) .150 .082 .013 .391 .200 .279 .172 .129 .380 .295 .289 Problem 2 Correlation Coefficient -.125 -.059 .111 -.076 -.053 -.232 -.153 -.167 .139 .000 Sig. (1-tailed) .237 .368 .263 .332 .380 .090 .190 .169 .212 .500 Problem 3 Correlation Coefficient .141 .257 .249 .240 .101 .000 .000 .186 .202 Sig. (1-tailed) .209 .068 .075 .082 .283 .500 .500 .143 .122 Problem 4 Correlation Coefficient .083 -.061 .245 .586(**) -.144 .354(*) -.066 .320(*) Sig. (1-tailed) .319 .364 .078 .000 .204 .019 .354 .030 Problem 5 Correlation Coefficient .117 .310(*) .042 -.200 .093 .139 .136 Sig. (1-tailed) .251 .035 .405 .125 .297 .213 .218 Problem 6 Correlation Coefficient .260 -.061 .307(*) .298(*) .245 .273 Sig. (1-tailed) .065 .363 .036 .041 .078 .056 Problem 7 Correlation Coefficient .447(**) .131 .187 .253 .388(*) Sig. (1-tailed) .004 .227 .141 .071 .011 Problem 9 Correlation Coefficient -.123 .452(**) .182 .481(**) Sig. (1-tailed) .241 .003 .148 .002 Problem 10 Correlation Coefficient .117 .038 .014 Sig. (1-tailed) .252 .414 .468 Problem 11 Correlation Coefficient .248 .531(**) Sig. (1-tailed) .076 .001 Problem 12 Correlation Coefficient .345(*) Sig. (1-tailed) .021

*  Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

**  Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).